Definitions, Issues and Characteristics of the River in IndonesiaThis Articel english version form "Definisi, Permasalahan dan Karakteristik Sungai di Indonesia"
- Definition of River
The river is a water irrigation system from start to spring up to the mouth with his left and right is restricted by the demarcation of the river along pengalirannya ( Sudaryoko, 1986 ). The river is a natural features and ecological integrity, which is useful for survival ( Brierly, 2005 ).
According to the Department of Public Works , the river as a source of water has a very important function for the lives and livelihoods. while the PP. 35 Year 1991 on the river , the River are places and containers as well as water drainage networks from spring to estuary with restricted right and left and along the demarcation line pengalirannya by.
The river is part of the earth's surface that is located lower than the surrounding soil and into the flow of freshwater into the sea, lakes, swamps, or into another river ( Hamzah, 2009 ).
Different flood plains of the river border. Banks of the river is left-right border area affected river / water overflowing rivers flooded. The function of the flow along the river is where most of the river discharge during flood ( high water channel ) ( Yodi Isnaini, 2006) . According to Law no. 35 1991 about the river , said understanding the River Plate is the land on both sides along the riverbed is calculated from the edge to the inner foot embankment. Accordingly the ban on the riverbank in the trash and put up buildings for occupancy. ( Polantolo, 2008 )
While the border river, the river Borders is a region that should be given to the creek. During the rainy season and the river discharge increases, the demarcation of the river serves as a parking area so that water can seep into ground water. In addition, the demarcation of the river is an area of the river on which a water system there are mechanisms to the river inflow and outflow into the groundwater. Inflow outflow process is a process of hydraulic river conservation and ground water in general. Ecologically border river is a habitat where the river ecology component develops ( Sobirin, 2003 ). More detail can be seen in the picture below:
Sources: Polantolo, 2009
- Problems Rivers in Indonesia
- Big River
a. Solo River
Solo including a large river which ideally has a width of 300 meters, but the current condition of the river is only 160-180 meters wide. This is because the river is experiencing problems. Upstream edge of the Solo River in the 30-40 percent slope is now a farm, there is almost no land left for the forest or the catchment areas that are important to the preservation of water sources Solo.
Solo border area which covers 1.9 million hectares, is now inhabited by 7.1 lost souls. Of the total population inhabiting the border Solo. Due to lack of knowledge of the population towards environmental sustainability Solo, they do not care and damage the largest river on the island of Java. Of the 1.9 million hectares of area demarcation of the river, of which 1.13 million hectares of land used for agriculture.
Solo River overflowed every rainy season. The cause of them, the river began to shallow because of sedimentation from agricultural land and loss of demarcation of the river causes the rainwater that falls directly into the rivers. In fact, if the demarcation is authentic (forests), an indirect fall-out rain water hits the ground. Rain on the leaves of the trees, then fell to the ground, and absorbed the roots of trees. The roots of this tree, in addition to storing rainwater (inhibiting flood), also can supply water to Bengawan in the dry season.
At the finish line along the Solo River upstream and erosion. This is caused because the river solo lively variety of sand mining, mainly cultivated on a large scale by vacuum. Huge holes in the river cliffs which lead to instability caused landslides. ( Source: Republika daily, Saturday, March 14, 2009)
b. Kapuas River
Development in the districts / cities in West Kalimantan (Kalbar) today has given rise to various environmental problems and adversely affect the condition of watersheds (DAS) Kapuas. Kapuas River is included in the classification of major rivers. Kapuas River has a width of 300 meters. Kapuas river is now polluted and the quality is declining. Many problems resulted River getting damaged. P ermasalahan related to the Kapuas river basin, such as deforestation, domestic waste, and illegal gold mining. ( http://www.fwi.or.id/indexasli.php?link=news&id=747 )
c. Barito River
Barito River is the mother river located in South Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan. Barito River has a width of 350-500 meters. In the Barito river siltation occurs (sedimentation) in the downstream. Territory that is passed by the flow of the Barito River in the year - last year it floods often occur in almost all regions. ( http://dishutkalsel.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=113&Itemid=142 )
Rivers in Banjarmasin many are switching functions. For example, many rivers in Banjarmasin which began to lose their area, due to the construction of shophouses (store house), road widening, as well as a residential area. ungai-river is very narrow for them renangi, and more concern that the river water is very dirty and a lot of rubbish that drifts with the flow of water. ( http://www2.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0606/03/daerah/ 2696201.htm )
- Medium River Issues
a. Ciliwung River
Ciliwung River is part of the Unit Area River (SWS) Ciliwung - Cisadane. As part of the SWS Ciliwung - Cisadane, Ciliwung River has a catchment area of 337 Km2 + flows along the 117 km-eyed water in the Mount Pangrango (3019 m) located in the southern city of Bogor and empties into the Java Sea and has a 30 meter wide river. Ciliwung River is one river that flows across the city limits / province and has an important function for the surrounding community is a source of raw water, flushing, transportation routes, and so on. However, in line with the urban growth occurs, the condition of Ciliwung River and its surroundings are getting worse. The number of people living on the outskirts of the river became rivers Ciliwung issues become increasingly complex. In addition to causing untidiness, the treatment population to Ciliwung River are also less responsible, because the assumption Ciliwung River as the rear of their house.
Ciliwung development activities in the watershed, which tends to lead to a reduction in carrying capacity, a decrease in the ability of absorbing water and land in an increase in the rate of erosion. This condition causes high surface water runoff resulting in its annual floods occur in DKI Jakarta. However, efforts to relieve banks of the river from illegal occupancy is one issue among many complex problems managing the city of Jakarta. In South Jakarta, for example, there are 5120 illegal buildings along the river with 8019 families as residents. There is another 5404 building with 7161 Timur.Bahkan family in Jakarta, in Jakarta there are 557 illegal buildings along the river with 910 families as residents. ( http://www.suarapembaruan.com/News/2007/02/22/Jabotabe/jab07.htm )
b. Brantas River
Brantas river border there are also a growing slums along the river. Many residents who live near the banks of the river by establishing the foundation of the house just above the creek. When it should be based on the explanation of the Act spatial demarcation of the river to be clean of settlements or buildings. On the banks of the Brantas River, r ibuan houses are generally built coincide with river bodies. Not a few of them stand above the sheer cliffs that bordered the river Brantas, so that thousands of houses are prone to landslides are generally built coincide with river bodies. Not a few of them stand above the sheer cliffs that bordered the river Brantas, which is most prone to landslides. ( www.metronews.com and postal Malang, October 24, 2008 )
Pursuant to Regulation of the Minister of Public Works No. 63 of 1993 on the River Line Borders, Regional Benefits River, and Rivers Control Area, a wide range of urban river demarcation shall be not less than 15 meters and in areas outside urban areas can reach 100 meters. However, this condition is barely awake from the upper Brantas River in the region towards Batu Malang Regency. From the upstream area, the utilization of demarcation of the Brantas River has a lot to agricultural activities that violate the provisions. Moreover, entering the city, settlement procedure completely ignores the provisions of the utilization of river border. ( Nur Rizal , Kompas, October 22, 2002 ).
a. Kali Grace
Kali Grace disemarang including channels whose surface is relatively flat. Such channels causing the water flow is usually slow, so most of the sediment can not be carried to downstream, therefore, natural that in some parts of the line and then place a serious silting. In fact, there are places that narrowed and greatly impede the flow of water. To fix the river, should parts of the shallow river dredged. the poor condition of these times make all parties feel aggrieved. Due to stagnant, Street Kaligawe also often damaged ( an independent voice-week, 14 March 2004 ).
Flow conditions and time Penggaron East Banjirkanal always rains whenever heavy rain falls upstream. In fact, the strength of the water was able to break through some levees in lalu.Sebaliknya Cilosari in 2005, the flow of grace time is much slower. it is because the difference in height between the upstream and downstream the river is indeed small. Upstream the river, north of Jalan Majapahit and obtain the main stream of the channel on the south side of the path-Purwodadi itu.Kondisi Kali Semarang grace like that resulted in the flow of mud can not flow fast and then settles. In addition, during heavy rains the flow of time, Grace was always defeated by Banjirkanal Timur.Bisa envisioned when the water had to queue while the flow from upstream continue to grow. It's also what causes a puddle in the village could for days. ( Suara Merdeka, Thursday January 2006 )
b. Times Citanduy
Times Citanduy CILACAP, not Citanduy River empties directly into the Ocean Indonesia but to the Segara Anakan, so that every year thousands of cubic meters of silt carried by the river into the lagoon and there was a high sedimentation process. ( Voice Merdeka, Friday 3 October 2003 ).
Based on the above explanation, it can be concluded that the condition of rivers in Indonesia experienced a variety of issues including:
· Pendangkalan river silt caused by erosion.
· Borders permikiman river narrows as it grows wild around the riverbanks.
· Damage to the finish line because the functionality is converted to agricultural land, plantations, and housing.
· The continued development of settlements along the banks of the river, so the environment is damaged and dirty.
C. Characteristics of Rivers in Indonesia
River is one of the sources of water are essential to life. The river has a function as a source of raw water, irrigation, flood control and urban macro channel. But what happens now is a decreased function of the river because the river into a large trash can, not a front porch but the backyard. This is at the root of the problem. Therefore, demarcation of the river is not only necessary but mandatory organized and protected. ( Dra. Lina Marlia, CES, Directorate General of Spatial Planning, Ministry of Public Works, 2009 )
According Robbet J. Kodoatie and Sugianto in his book, Flood, said that the river can be grouped into three areas that show the nature and characteristic of the different river systems, namely:
· In the upstream areas (mountains) in the mountainous rivers have a steep slope ( STEEP slope ). This steep slope and high rainfall will cause a stream power (strong currents) big rivers that flow into the river in this area is quite large. The time period generally runs faster flow rates. On the upstream side is marked by the erosion in the River Irrigation Area (DPS) and the erosion of the riverbed due to crushing and rock avalanches. The process of sedimentation of the river bluff is called degradation. Riverbed material can be shaped boulder / boulder, Krakal, krikil and sand. The shape of the river in this area is braider (selempit / braid). The upper groove is a series of rapids upstream flow of the rushing rapids. Cross section of generally V-shaped river
· In the transition area to the mountainous border to the coast, the river bed slope is generally less than 2% due to the slope of the riverbed extends gradually becomes gentle ( mild ). In this area along with the reduced flow rate, although the erosion is still happening but increased sedimentation process that causes deposition of sediment begins to rise, due to the deposition is impacting on the shrinking capacity of the river (latitude river looks reduction). Degradation process (crushing) and agradasi (buildup of sediment) occurs as a result floods can occur in a relatively long compared to upstream areas. Basically relatively softer material than in the mountains. Cross section of the river is generally a gradual change from V to U.
In the downstream areas; river began the transition boundary, coastal areas, and ends in the sea (river mouth / estuary ). The slope in the area downstream of the ramps to be very gentle and even there are parts of the river, especially near the sea bottom slope of the river close to 0 (zero). Generally form the shape of river meanders show a pattern that would impede the flow of flood. Agradasi process (buildup of sediment) is more dominant place. Riverbed material finer than in the transition area or the upstream region. In the event of flooding, periods longer than the transition area and upstream areas..
Form River V
Form River U
Characteristics and type of river in Indonesia based on the source of river water, divided into three kinds: ( http://airbengkulu.blogspot.com/2009/04/sungai-dan-definisinya.html )
- Rainy River, is the river where the water comes from rain water or spring water. Examples are rivers that exist in Java and Nusa Tenggara.
- Mixed River, is a river whose waters originate from a search of ice (glaciers) of rain, and springs. Examples of this type are stream and river Mamberano Digul River in New Guinea (Irian Jaya).
Characteristics and type of river in Indonesia, based on water discharge (water volume), the river is divided into: ( http://airbengkulu.blogspot.com/2009/04/sungai-dan-definisinya.html )
- Permanent rivers, is the river water discharge is relatively fixed throughout the year. Examples of the Kapuas River, Kahayan, Barito and Mahakam In Kalimantan. Musi River, and Indragiri Batanghari in Sumatra
- Periodic River is a river in the rainy season while the water is much smaller in the dry season water. Examples of this river much like the island of Java, Solo, Opak rivers, the Progo River, River Code, and the Brantas River.
- Episodic River, is a river in the dry season the water is dry and the rainy season the water a lot. Example: River kalada island of Sumba.
- Ephemeral river, the river that there is water only during the rainy season, rainy season the water is not necessarily a lot.
Indonesia has many islands, it is generally unspoiled rivers in Indonesia and they tend to turn-term consequences of beloknya flow of the river due to different heights, topography or other things and many of which empties directly into the ocean. River flow patterns in Indonesia there are various flow patterns such as granular, dentritik, trelis, merder and others. This is an example of granular flow patterns in the hills, parallels the flow pattern on the hill that has a system of Kars (limestone). To merder a flow pattern that is usually found in many systems alluvial plains (sediment). Merder flow mostly found in Indonesia, namely the flow that flows all year round and can be found in large rivers such as the ambi Batanghari, Kapuas, Sungai Kampar and others. ( Kompas, Sunday, July 6, 2003 )
River development in Indonesia is still at least to be able to resolve the problem at hand. When compared with irrigation development, the scope of the development of the river is still far behind. The work done is limited to rivers priority. It can be seen that more than 6,000 rivers with a length of more than 40 kilometers, only 39 rivers are categorized as priority and dealt with in parts of upper, middle, and downstream. There are still many rivers that is natural, so in terms of river kenaturalan Indonesia has more treasures than any country. ( Kompas, Sunday, July 6, 2003 ).
Download Books Geomorphology and River Management
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Rahman boby dan Dita Rr KP, Pola Ruang Terbuka Hijau di Bantaran Sungai (produk: Seminar Produk Akhir), Semarang, Tahun 2009